Interview Questions on Computer and Mobile Software

Interview Questions on Computer and Mobile Software

1) What is Computer Software?
 

Set of instructions that directs a computer to perform specific operations.

2) What is Mobile Software?
 

Software developed specifically for use on small, wireless computing devices.

3) What are different types of Software?
 

We have thousands of Software available in the IT Industry, but we can segregate them in to three categories.

a) System Software:
> Software that operates the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality needed by users and other software.

Ex: Operating Systems, Device Drivers etc...

(MS Windows, UNIX, Linux, Macintosh etc...)

Printer drivers, etc...

b) Application Software
> Software that used for automating Business operations.

Ex: Banking Applications, Insurance Applications, ERP, and ECommerece Apps etc...

c) Programming Software
> Software that used to develop System Software and Application Software.

Ex: Editors, Compilers etc...

C, Java, .NET, etc...

4) Explain about different types of Software?
 

Classification of Software

a) Operating Systems
Examples: DOS, MS Windows, UNIX/Linux/Solaris, Macintosh, OS2, OS400, Novel Netware etc…

b) Programming Languages
Examples: COBOL, C, C++, Java, VB, VC++ etc…

c) Database Management Systems
Examples: Oracle, Sybase, MS Access,  SQL Server, MySQL, DB2, DB400 etc…

d) ERP Packages
Examples: SAP, People soft, Siebel, Oracle Applications etc…

e) Web Technologies
Examples: HTML, DHTML, CSS, Java Script, VBScript, XML, IIS, Apache web server, COM+, WebLogic Application Server etc…


f) Web Browsers

Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera etc...
g) Accounting Packages
Examples: Tally, Gally,  Focus, QuickBooks, Wings etc…

h) Documentation Software
Examples: Notepad, WordPad, MS Office, Open Office, Star Office, Acrobat PDF Writer and Reader Etc…

i) Application Software
> BFSI (Banking, Financial services and Insurance) Applications
(Banking Applications, Insurance Applications and Financial Applications)

> ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning) Software

> Healthcare Applications

> Telecom Applications

> Ecommerce Applications

> Retail Market Applications
Etc…

5) What are different types of Software Environments?
 

Software Environment consists of Presentation Layer, Processing Layer and Data Storage Layer.
 
a) I-Tier Applications
> I-Tier or Standalone Application having only single layer, presentation and processing layers both reside in the same layer.

> Data can be stored in a file format.

Ex: Notepad, Word pad, MS Word, Acrobat Writer etc...

b) II-Tier Applications
> In 2 tier Architecture, presentation layer or interface runs on a client, and data gets stored on a server.

c) III-Tier Applications
> In 3 tier Architecture, process logic, data access, computer data storage and user interface are developed and maintained as independent modules on separate platforms.

Ex: http://www.indiacements.co.in

d) N-Tier Applications
> A multi-tier application is developed and distributed among more than one layer. It logically separates the different application-specific, operational layers.

Ex: Internet Banking Applications

6) What is Desktop Application?
 

An application that runs stand alone in a desktop or laptop computer.

7) What is Web Application?
 

A Software Application that is accessed over a network either Internet or Intranet through a web browser.

8) What is Mobile Application or Mobile App?
 

A Mobile Application or Mobile App is a software application developed specifically for use on Smartphones and Tablets, rather than Desktop or Laptop computers.

9) What are different types of Web Environments?
 

a) Intranet Applications
> An intranet application is a private software application used primarily on the internal network of an organization.

b) Internet Applications
> An internet application is a public or private software application on the wide area network.

c) Extranet Applications
> Extranet application also a Private application over internet.

10) What are different types of Web Applications?
 

a) Websites
> Basically Website is an Information provider, provides information globally using internet protocols.

Ex: http://www.pennacement.com/

b) Web Portals
Web Portal is a business gateway, It organizes business operations.

Ex: www.naukri.com, www.ebay.in etc...

c) Web Applications
Web Applications provide information as well as services(Paid or Free).

Ex: www.icicibank.com

d) Social Networking Applications
Ex: www.facebook.com, www.twitter.com, www.linkedin.com etc...

e) Email Service providers
Ex: www.gmail.com, www.rediffmail.com etc...

f) Discussion Forums

g) ECommerece Applications etc...

 
11) What are different types of Mobile Applications?
 

We have 3 types of Mobile Applications.

a) Native Applications
> A Native application (native app) is an application program that has been developed for use on a particular platform or device.

> We download Native apps from the App Store or Google Play, they sit within our device’s applications and you launch them by tapping their icon.

b) Web Apps
> Mobile Web apps are web apps accessed using a Mobile Browser.

c) Hybrid Apps
> A hybrid application (hybrid app) is one that combines elements of both native and Web applications.


12) What is a Mainframe System?
 

A mainframe computer is a very large computer capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly.

13) What is Embedded System?
 

An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed in capability or programmable

Ex: Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment, cameras, household appliances, airplanes, vending machines and toys etc...

--------------------------------------------------------

Selenium Interview Questions Part 1

Selenium Interview Questions and Answers Part-1

Interview Questions on Selenium Basics

1) What is Selenium?
 

> Selenium is a suite of tools to automate web browsers, Selenium supports web Applications testing only, doesn't support Windows based client/server Applications testing.

> Selenium tools are mainly used for Functional and Regression Testing of Web Applications.

2) What are the Components or tools of Selenium?
 

Selenium IDE

Selenium RC

Selenium WebDriver

Selenium Grid

Note:

Selenium 1.0 (Selenium IDE + Selenium RC + Selenium Grid)

Selenium 2.0 (Selenium IDE + Selenium RC + Selenium WebDriver + Selenium Grid)

3) What is selenium IDE?
 

> It is a test tool in Selenium suite, used record and play back test cases.

> It has IDE to create and execute test cases, but it doesn't support programming to enhance test cases.

> Selenium IDE supports Mozilla Firefox browser only.

4) What is Selenium WebDriver?
 

> It is test tool in Selenium suite, using element locators and Webdriver methods we can create and execute test cases.

> Selenium Webdriver supports Programming (Either Java or Perl or PHP or C#.Net or Python or Ruby) to enhance test cases.

> Selenium WebDriver supports Mozilla Firefox, IE, Google Chrome, Safari etc...Browsers.

> It supports MS Windows, UNIX and Macintosh operating environments.

5) What is Selenium Grid?
 

> Selenium Grid is a tool in Selenium suite to execute test cases in Parallel,

6) What are the advantages of Selenium?
 

> Selenium suite of tools are open source tools, anybody can download and use with free of cost.

> Selenium supports various operating environments like MS Windows, UNIX, Macintosh etc...

> Selenium supports various Programming languages to enhance test cases.

> Selenium supports various Browsers.

7) What are the disadvantages of Selenium?
 

> Since it is Open source suite of tools no reliable support from anybody.

> No centralized maintenance of Objects.

> New features may not work properly.

> It doesn't support Windows based Client/server applications.

> Limited support form Image testing.

8) How to configure Selenium?
 

Selenium IDE:
 
Launch Firefox browser, Download Selenium IDE from www.seleniumhq.org and install.

Selenium WebDriver:

 
> Download Eclipse IDE and extract

> Download Java software and install.

> Download Selenium Webdriver Java language bindings from Seleniumhq.org website.

> Create Java project in Eclipse and add selenium WebDriver jar file to Java project in Eclipse.


9) What is JUnit?

> JUnit is a Testing framework used for Unit testing

> JUnit is also used with Selenium for Functional Testing.

> Using JUnit with Selenium we can group test cases, execute test batches and generate detailed test reports.

10) What is TestNG?
 

> TestNG is a test automation framework used in Selenium to group test cases, executes series of test cases and generate detailed test reports.

11) What about Selenium certification?
 

> Since it is open source software, no authorized certification exam for Selenium.

> Some organizations are conducting Selenium certification exam but no value guarantee.

12) What is Selenium license?
 

> All Selenium projects released under Apache 2.0 License.

> Anybody can download and use Selenium suite of tools with free of cost.

> Anybody can update the source code and use.

> Selling updated code is not allowed, this is the primary objective of Apache 2.0 license.


13) What is ANT?

> Apache Ant is a tool that automates the software build process. It also supports testing.

> Ant is used for code compilation, deployment, and execution process.


14) What is Jenkins and what is the usage of Jenkins in Selenium?
 

> Jenkins is an open source continuous integration tool written in Java.

> It is cross-platform and can be used on Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Solaris environments.

> Running Selenium tests in Jenkins allows us to run our tests every time our software changes and deploy the software to a new environment when the tests pass.

> Jenkins can schedule our tests to run at specific time.

15) What is Maven? 


> Maven is a build automation tool used primarily for Java projects.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Choose Selenium tools and others:

For Functional and Regression Testing of your web bases applications choose following tools and plug-ins.

> Eclipse IDE to create and execute Java programs/WebDriver & TestNG Test cases.

> Java Programming language to enhance Selenium WebDriver Test cases.

> Selenium WebDriver to recognize elements (objects) in our web application and perform operations on elements.

> Firebug and Firepath to inspect elements in Mozilla Firefox browser.

> TestNG Framework for grouping test cases, executing series of test cases and generating test reports.

> Maven

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Interview Questions on SDLC Models

Interview Questions on SDLC Models

1) What is SDLC Model?
 

> A software development life cycle (SDLC) model is a conceptual framework describing all activities in a software development project from planning to maintenance.

2) What is Waterfall Model?
 

> The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow; hence it is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model.

> Any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In waterfall model phases do not overlap.

3) What are the advantages of Waterfall Model?
 

> Simple model, easy to understand and use.

> Phases are processed and completed one at time.

> Takes less time to complete the Project.

> Works well for smaller projects and inexpensive.

4) What are the disadvantages of Waterfall Model?
 

> Single stage of Testing, so Quality product may not produce.

> We cannot go back a step; if the design phase has gone wrong, things can get comp ligated in the coding phase.

> Not a good model for Complex projects.

> High amount of risk and uncertainty.

> It is not suitable for the projects where requirements at a moderate to high risk of changing.

5) When to choose Waterfall Model?
 

> When the Project is short.

> Requirements are clear and Fixed.

> Technology is easily understood.

6) What is V Model?
 

A Framework to describe the Software Life cycle activities from Requirements specification to maintenance.

The V Model illustrates how testing activities can be integrated into each phase of the Software life cycle.

7) What are the advantages of V Model?
 

Advantages of V Model:
 

> Tester role will take place in the requirement phase it self

> Multiple stages of Testing available so that Defects multiplication can be reduced.

> The V Model Supports wide range of development methodologies such as Structured and Object oriented systems development.

> The V Model supports tailoring.

8) What are the disadvantages of V Model?
 

Disadvantages of V Model:
 

> It an expensive model than Waterfall model, needs lot of resources, budget and time.

> Co-ordination and Maintenance are difficult.

> Adoption of changes in Requirements and Adding New Requirements at middle of the process is difficult.

9) What is Prototype Model?
 

> It begins with requirements gathering. Developers and Customers meet and define the overall objectives of the software.

> Developers prepare design documents using all available requirements then build the prototypes, prototypes are sent to Customer, and Customer evaluates Prototypes and gives feedback. Developers redefine Requirements, modify software design and produce modified Prototypes. Process will be continued like this, after getting Customer’s confirmation then developers Start Regular process; Software Design, Coding (Implementation), Testing and Release & Maintenance.

10) What are the advantages of Prototype model?
 

Advantages of Prototype Model:
 


> The customer doesn’t need to wait long as in the Waterfall Model and V Model.

> Feedback from customer is received periodically and the changes don’t come as a last minute surprise.

> Customer’s interaction improves the Quality as well success rate.

11) What are the disadvantages of Prototype Model?
 

Disadvantages of Prototype Model:
 
> It is not a complete process model for Software development, used to get clear requirements.

> It is an expensive approach and takes more time when its compare to sequential models like Waterfall model.

> Customer could believe the prototype as the working version.

> Developer also could make the implementation compromises.

> Once Requirements are finalized then adopting changes in Requirements and adding New Requirements are difficult.

12) What is Agile Methodology?
 

> Meaning of Agile is 'moving quickly'. This software development methodology is based on iterative and incremental approaches.

13) What are the important types of Agile Methodologies?
 

> Scrum

> Extreme Programming (XP)

> Agile Unified Process (AUP)

> Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)

> Essential Unified Process (EssUP)

> Feature Driven Development (FDD)

> Open Unified Process (OpenUP)

> Crystal Clear

> Velocity tracking
------------------------------

UFT Tutorial 2

UFT Class 2 - UFT Test Process
Software Test Process / STLC
i) Test Planning

ii) Test Design

iii) Test Execution

iv) Test Closure
------------------------
UFT Test Process
Phases

i) Planning

ii) Generate Basic Tests

iii) Enhance Tests

iv) Run & Debug Tests

v) Analyze Test Results

vi) Report Defects
-----------------------------------
Introduction to UFT
HP UFT latest version: 12.51 (September 2015)

> It is a Functional & Regression Test tool

> Advanced version of QTP is UFT (UFT = QTP + Service Tools)

(QTP 6.5 to 11.00, UFT 11.5 to 12.51 ........)

> UFT is an Object based Test tool

> UFT supports Windows based and Web based Applications

Windows based:
Window, Dialog box, Button, Edit box, List box, Text box, Text area, Drop down box,
Combo box, check box, radio button etc....

Web based:
Browser, Page, Link, Image, WebTable, Frame, Button, Edit box, List box, Text box, Text area, Drop down box,
Combo box, check box, radio button etc....

> UFT recognizes objects in our application based on Add ins.

a) Internal Add ins
1) Standard Windows (default)

2) Activex

3) Mobile

4) Visual Basic

5) Web
---------------
b) External Add ins
Java

SAP for gui

SAP for web

.NET for windows forms

.NET for web forms

WPF

Sibel

TE

Web Services

People soft

Oracle

Delphi

Stingray

Smalltalk etc...
-----------------------------------------
> UFT has an integrated VBScript engine to enhance Tests

> UFT has an integrated MS Access Database engine for Database operations.

> UFT developed in .NET (VC++) technology.

> UFT is I-tier Application.
----------------------------------
Phases of UFT Test Process
i) Planning------------------

> Get AUT environment details (UI design technology and Database) form development for selecting appropriate Add ins.

> Analyze the AUT in terms of Object Identification

How to recognize objects

    By Record & Play back

    Using object Spy

    Map objects in between OR and AUT

> Select Test cases for Automation

    Tests that we have to execute on every build (Sanity Tests)

    Tests that we have to execute on every modified build (Regression Tests)

    Tests that we have to execute with multiple sets of Test data (Data driven Tests)

> Tool settings configuration and globalize

> Automation Framework Implementation (Optional)
-----------------------------------------------------
ii) Generating Basic Tests
a) Object Repository based Test design

        1) Recording
        2) Keyword driven methodology

b) Descriptive Programming
        1) Static programming
        2) Dynamic Programming
--------------------------
c) OR based + DP
-------------------------------------------------
iii) Enhancing Tests
Try to increase the usage of VBScript.

1) Script features won't corrupt.

2) Faster in Execution

3) Script features have no limitations.

4) All script features can be used internally as well as Externally.
-----------------------------------------
    1) Inserting Checkpoints

    2) Inserting Output values

    3) Inserting Transaction points

    4) Parametrization

    5) Synchronization

    6) Using Environment variables

    7) Using Regular expressions

    8) Using VBScript Flow control statements

    9) using Functions

    10) Error Handling (using Recovery scenarios, and VBScript features)

    11) Using Automation objects

    12) Add Comments
--------------------------------------------------------

UFT Tutorial 1

UFT Tutorial 1 - Overview of Test Automation

I) Disadvantages of Manual Testing

II) Advantages of Test Automation

III) Disadvantages of Test Automation

IV) Types of Test Tools

V) Overview of Functional Testing
----------------------------------------------
I) Disadvantages of Manual Testing
1) It takes more time or more resources.

2) Less Accuracy

3) Comparison of data (large amount of data) is impractical

4) Performance Testing is impractical

5) Batch Testing takes more time

6) Data driven testing takes more time
----------------------------------------------
II) Advantages of Test Automation
1) Fast:

2) Reliability:

3) Reusable: Sanity Testing, Regression Testing.

4) Repeatable: Data driven Testing

5) Programmable:
Variables, Operators, Flow control statements, Functions etc....

6) Comprehensive: Batch Testing
----------------------------------------------
III) Disadvantages of Test Automation
1) It takes more efforts at initial state.

2) 100% Test automation is impractical

3) Lack of knowledge

4) Usability Testing is impractical

5) Debugging Issues

6) Not suitable for dynamically changing requirements

7) Not suitable for dynamically changing UI designs

8) Environment limitations

9) Tools may have their own defects.
----------------------------------------------
IV) Types of Test Tools
a) Business Classification
--------------------------
1) Vendor Tools

HP (Take over from Mercury Interactive in 2007)-

WinRunner (Scrapped)

LoadRunner

Astra QuickTest (Retired)

QTP (Retired)

UFT

TestDirector (Retired)
Quality Center
ALM
-------
HP-UFT
HP-LoadRunner
HP-ALM
----------------
IBM RFT
IBM RPT
etc...
-----------
Micro Focus
SilkTest
SilkPerformer
etc...

2) Open source Tool

Selenium,
JMeter,
Bugzilla etc....

3) In house Tools
------------------------------
b) Technical Classification
------------------------------
1) Functional and Regression Test tools

UFT, Selenium, RFT, SilkTest, TestComplete etc...

2) Performance Test Tools

LoadRunner, RPT, SilkPerformer, JMeter etc...

3) Project life cycle management

ALM

4) Defect Management

Bugzilla, Issue Tracker, PR-Tracker etc...
----------------------------------------------
V) Overview of Functional Testing
Functional Testing - Test Type

System Testing - Test Level

System Testing Level - Functional and Non Functional Test Types
------------
Functional & Unit Testing

Functional & Integration Testing

Functional & System Testing

Functional & Acceptance Testing
----------------------
Coverage of Functional Testing

1) Input domain coverage

Data factors

Type of Data

Size of Data

Range of Data

2) Output Domain coverage

3) Database Testing

    Data manipulations (Add, Update, Delete operations)
    Data Integrity
    Data Retrievals
    Data comparisons
    Data Backup & Recovery operations etc....

4) Error handling

5) Order of Functionalities
-----------------------------

Top Ten in the world

Top 10 in the world

I) Top 10 Countries by Population

Rank
Country
Continent
Population
% of Population in the World

1)
China
Asia
1, 347, 350, 000
19.17%
2)
India
Asia
1, 210, 193, 422
17.22%
3)
USA (United States of America)
North America
    313, 955, 000
  4.47%
4)
Indonesia
Asia
    237, 641, 326
  3.38%
5)
Brazil
South America
    192, 376, 496
  2.74%
6)
Pakistan
Asia
    180, 164, 000
  2.56%
7)
Nigeria
Africa
    166, 629, 000
  2.37%
8)
Bangladesh
Asia
    152, 518, 015
  2.17%
9)
Russia
Asia & Europe
    143, 100, 000
  2.04%
10)
Japan
Asia
    127, 530, 000
  1.81%


II) Top 10 Countries by Area

Rank
Country
Continent
Area (in sq km)
1)
Russia
Asia & Europe
17, 075, 000
2)
Canada
North America
  9, 976, 000
3)
USA
North America
  9, 629, 091 
4)
China
Asia
  9, 596, 960 
5)
Brazil
South America
  8, 511, 965
6)
Australia
Australia
  7, 686, 850
7)
India
Asia
  3, 287, 590
8)
Argentina
South America
  2, 766, 890
9)
Kazakhstan
Asia & Europe
  2, 717, 300
10)
Algeria
Africa
  2, 381, 740


III) Top 10 Largest Economies in the World

Rank
Country
GDP-PPP
1
United States
14.65 Trillion
2
China
10.09 Trillion
3
Japan
  4.31 Trillion
4
India
  4.06 Trillion
5
Germany
  2.94 Trillion
6
Russia
  2.23 Trillion
7
United Kingdom
  2.173 Trillion
8
Brazil
  2.172 Trillion
9
France
  2.145 Trillion
10
Italy
  1.774 Trillion

IV) Top ten World’s most livable cities

Rank
City
Country
Rating
1
Melbourne
Australia
97.5
2
Vienna
Austria
97.4
3
Vancouver
Canada
97.3
4
Toronto
Canada
97.2
5
Calgary
Canada
96.6
6
Sydney
Australia
96.1
7
Helsinki
Finland
96.0
8
Perth
Australia
95.9
9
Adelaide
Australia
959
10
Auckland
New Zealand
95.7

V) Top 10 Worst Cities (to live) in the World

Rank
City
Country
1
Harare
Zimbabwe
2
Dhaka
Bangladesh
3
Port Moresby
Papua New Guinea
4
Lagos
Nigeria
5
Algiers
Algeria
6
Karachi
Pakistan
7
Douala
Cameroon
8
Tehran
Iran
9
Dakar
Senegal
10
Colombo
Sri Lanka

VI) Top 10 countries GDP- Per capita (Year 2011) by IMF

Rank
Country
In US Dollars
1
Luxembourg
113, 533
2
Qatar
  98, 329
3
Norway
  97, 255
4
Switzerland
  81, 161
5
United Arab Emirates
  67, 008
6
Australia
  65, 477
7
Denmark
  59, 928
8
Sweden
  56, 956
9
Canada
  50, 436
10
Netherlands
  50, 355
14
United States
  48, 387
140
India
    1, 389

VII) Top 10 Most Livable Countries (by United Nations)

Rank
Country
1
Norway
2
Australia
3
Netherlands
4
USA
5
New Zealand
6
Canada
7
Ireland
8
Liechtenstein
9
Germany
10
Sweden


VIII) Top 10 Cities in the World by GDP

Rank
City
Country
GDP in Billion Dollars
1
Tokyo
Japan
1480
2
New York
United States
1406
3
Los Angeles
United States
  792
4
Chicago
United States
  574
5
London
United Kingdom
  565
6
Paris
France
  564
7
Osaka
Japan
  417
8
Mexico City
Mexico
  390
9
Sao Paulo
Brazil
  390
10
Philadelphia
United States
  388
30
Mumbai
India
  209
38
New Delhi
India
  167